Cultural Competence In European Health Insurance: Meeting Diverse Needs

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Cultural Competence In European Health Insurance: Meeting Diverse Needs


Cultural Competence In European Health Insurance: Meeting Diverse Needs

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Mario Alberto Viveros Espinoza-Kulick by Mario Alberto Viveros Espinoza-Kulick Scilit Google Scholar 1; * and Jessica P. Cerdeña Jessica P. Cerdeña Scilit Google Scholar 2; 3, 4

Received: 23 August 2022 / Revised: 26 September 2022 / Accepted: 3 October 2022 / Published: 6 October 2022

Latinx (im)immigrant groups are underserved by current mental health resources. Previous research has focused on migration-related trauma; Discrimination He shed light on the complex factors that contribute to this problem, including anti-immigration policies and structural weaknesses. This paper uses data to present and analyze results from two Latinx (im)immigrant communities in central California and southern Connecticut in the United States. Using mixed quantitative and qualitative analysis, we demonstrate the intersectional complexities that must be addressed in designing effective mental health services. mental health knowledge; Relevant social and structural factors, including insurance availability and discrimination, were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms based on linear regression analysis. Ethnographic interviews demonstrate how complex trauma informs mental health needs, particularly through women’s experiences of sexuality. Gender language barriers; Fear of authority and overlapping images of immigration status shape the lived experiences of Latinx (im)migrants. especially access to health care; Affordability Content analyzes of transparency provide recommendations based on responses based on the experiences of those directly affected by these health disparities related to capabilities. Building on these findings and previous research, We have the right to use indigenous languages; structural capacity; We recommend adopting a comprehensive model of mental health service delivery for Latinx (im)immigrants that considers expanded health insurance and resources for community health workers.

Cultural Competence In European Health Insurance: Meeting Diverse Needs

Latinxs are the largest non-white racial or ethnic group in the United States, numbering 62.1 million and comprising 19% of the population by 2022. By 2030, Latinxs are expected to make up nearly 30% of Americans. Latinxs in the U.S. is the youngest ethnic or racial group: one-third of the nation’s Latinos are under the age of 18 [3]. However, Long-standing gaps exist in culturally responsive and effectively implemented mental health care services among these diverse populations. language cultural relevance; This paper builds from research documenting the influence of mental health among Latino groups to inform a model for services that address the complex overlap of access and structural disadvantage.

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Latinxs—a gender-neutral term for “Latino/as,” short for Latinoamericanos—are a strikingly diverse group. Latinx/o/a is a symbol denoting Latin American origin or heritage, including individuals who trace their roots to Central and South America and the Caribbean. Therefore, Quechua-speaking rural Ecuadorians; Spanish-speaking mestizo Costa Rican; Totonaco-speaking coastal Mexican; Creyol-speaking black Haitians and Italian-speaking white Argentines may be classified as Latinos in the United States. In addition, Hispanics who became residents of the United States after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848; Many descendants of Taranos and Spanish settlers in California can also be identified as Latinx/o/a [8, 9]. Responses to the needs of the Latinx community include racial identity, language Origin and migration history [10] must prevail.

Perhaps because of this heterogeneity; Latinxs show differential prevalence of mental health disorders. In 2018, 8.6 million Latinx adults had a mental health or substance use disorder [11]. In general, Evidence suggests that Latinx individuals are at lower risk for most mental health disorders compared to non-Latino whites [ 12 ]. However, US-born Latinxs reported higher rates for most mental disorders compared to Latinx immigrants; These rates differed when stratified by birth and disability and adjusted for demographic and socioeconomic differences [13]. This reflects a paradoxical pattern of health disparities that some refer to as the “Latino health paradox.” This term suggests that Latinx and immigrant communities experience a different mix of risk and protective factors compared to non-Latino white communities. in particular, Recent immigrants tend to have more positive health and resilience, and higher levels of acculturation and longer residence in the United States contribute to many health risks [ 14 ]. Latinx youth are at risk for mental health disorders: 18.9% of Latinx high school students have seriously considered suicide, 15.7% have attempted suicide; 11.3% attempted suicide and 4.1% attempted that suicide. requires medical treatment [12, 15]. In addition, Latinx youth were more likely to report alcohol or cigarette use in the past year, illicit drug use, and more than youth from other racial/ethnic groups.

Many interacting and overlapping factors contribute to the development of mental health disorders in Latinxs. First, Latinos, particularly those who immigrated to the United States, report higher rates of trauma. Migration or transnational mobility involves many disadvantages, including violence and economic uncertainty in one’s country of origin. physical and sexual violence during border crossings; Dehydration kidnappings and exploitations; family separation; retention and repatriation [17, 18, 19, 20]. rape, forced prostitution; The experiences are particularly dire for women, who may face trafficking and physical violence. Reports of injury among Latina immigrant women are extremely high, with a prevalence rate of 75% [23, 24, 25]. In addition, Many Latinos were victims of European colonization; slavery They carry historical wounds related to sexual violence and the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas. Such reproductive and genocidal violence continues, with recent reports of forced hysterectomies against immigrant (im)migrant women in detention in Georgia.

Second, Latinx immigrants and their descendants face discrimination. Both scientific stress and discrimination have been shown to affect physical health through the mediating effects of anxiety. for example, Greater experiences of discrimination moderate the effect of harsh working conditions on increased symptoms of anxiety and depression among migrant farmworkers in the rural Midwest. Discrimination was also significantly associated with substance use behaviors among Latinos. In a recent systematic review, discrimination; Family separation and fear of deportation have been found to exacerbate acculturation stress [ 31 ].

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Third, Strict immigration policies and enforcement contribute to psychological stress among Latinxs. Increasing immigration is associated with higher psychological distress and decreased self-reported health. A systematic review of the impact of immigration policy on mental health: depression, Consistent associations have been identified between restrictive immigration policies and outcomes, including anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) [33] . Self-reports of more personal and family suffering as a consequence of current immigration policies include depression, anxiety and psychological distress [34, 35] and proved to be related. Citizen children who worry about losing their caregivers are depressed; anxiety, စိတ်ပိုင်းဆိုင်ရာ ပူပန်မှုနှင့် သတိပြုမိမှု [36] ပိုများသည်။ ကိုယ်ဝန်ဆောင်အမျိုးသမီးများကြားတွင်၊ မိသားစုဝင်တစ်ဦးအား ပြည်နှင်ဒဏ်ခံရမည်ကို ကြောက်ရွံ့ခြင်းမှာ ကိုယ်ဝန်ဆောင်စဉ်နှင့် မီးဖွားပြီးနောက် စိုးရိမ်ပူပန်မှု မြင့်မားခြင်း [37] တို့ဖြစ်သည်။ In addition, ဒေသန္တရလူဝင်မှုကြီးကြပ်ရေးအာဏာပိုင်များနှင့်ဖက်ဒရယ်လူဝင်မှုကြီးကြပ်ရေးအာဏာပိုင်များ၏ပူးပေါင်းဆောင်ရွက်မှုကိုခွင့်ပြုသည့် 287(g) သဘောတူညီချက်များကိုအကောင်အထည်ဖော်ပြီးနောက် ကိုယ်ဝန်ဆောင်လက်တင်နာအမျိုးသမီးများသည် နောက်ပိုင်းတွင် ကိုယ်ဝန်ဆောင်စောင့်ရှောက်မှုကိုရှာဖွေခဲ့ပြီး လက်တင်မဟုတ်သောအမျိုးသမီး [38] နှင့်နှိုင်းယှဉ်ပါက လုံလောက်သောစောင့်ရှောက်မှုမရရှိပါ။ လေ့လာမှုတစ်ခုအရ ပြည်နယ်တစ်ခု၏ လူဝင်မှုကြီးကြပ်ရေး ဖမ်းဆီးမှုနှုန်းသည် 1% တိုးလာခြင်းသည် စိတ်ကျန်းမာရေး ဆိုးရွားမှု ရလဒ်များစွာ [39] နှင့် သိသိသာသာ ဆက်စပ်နေကြောင်း တွေ့ရှိခဲ့သည်။ လူဝင်မှုကြီးကြပ်ရေး စီးနင်းမှုများနှင့် အစုလိုက်အပြုံလိုက် ပြည်နှင်ဒဏ်ခံရပြီးနောက်၊ အထူးသဖြင့် (၄င်း) ရွှေ့ပြောင်းအခြေချသူများနှင့် လက်တင်လူမျိုးများသည် ပိုကြီးသောစိတ်ဖိစီးမှုနှင့် အကြောက်တရားနှင့် ကျန်းမာရေးပိုဆိုးလာကြောင်း အစီရင်ခံတင်ပြပါသည်။

မကြာသေးမီနှစ်များအတွင်း ရွှေ့ပြောင်းအခြေချသူများ ဆန့်ကျင်ရေး စိတ်ဓာတ်များ ပြင်းထန်လာခြင်းနှင့် မကြာသေးမီနှစ်များအတွင်း ပြည်နှင်ဒဏ်ပေးခြင်း တိုးလာခြင်းတို့ကြားတွင် အဆိုပါ တွေ့ရှိချက်သည် အထူးသက်ဆိုင်ပါသည်။ ၂၀၀၉ ခုနှစ်မှ ၂၀၁၆ ခုနှစ်အတွင်း အထောက်အထားမဲ့ ရွှေ့ပြောင်းနေထိုင်သူ ငါးသန်းကျော်ကို ပြည်နှင်ဒဏ်ပေးခဲ့သည်။ Trump အုပ်ချုပ်မှုအောက်တွင် Latinx များအတွက်ပြင်းထန်သောဂယက်ရိုက်ခတ်မှုနှင့်အတူတင်းကျပ်သောအရေးယူဆောင်ရွက်မှုများဆက်တိုက်လုပ်ဆောင်ခဲ့သည်။ ကျမ်းသစ္စာကျိန်ဆိုပြီး ရက်ပိုင်းအတွင်းမှာပဲ သမ္မတဟောင်း Trump က “အမေရိကန်ပြည်ထဲရေးမှာ လူထုလုံခြုံရေးကို မြှင့်တင်ခြင်း” ဆိုတဲ့ အမှုဆောင်အမိန့် 13768 ကို လက်မှတ်ရေးထိုးခဲ့ပါတယ်။

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