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Disaster Resilience And European Health Insurance: Lessons From Natural Calamities
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What Is Operational Resilience And How To Achieve It
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By Stavros Kalogiannidis Stavros Kalogiannidis Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, * , Ermelinda Toska Ermelinda Toska Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2 , Fotios Chatzitheodoridis Fotios Chatzitheodoridis Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2 and Dimitrios Kalfas Scilit Google Preprints3.
Received: 14 March 2022 / Revised: 15 April 2022 / Accepted: 18 April 2022 / Published: 20 April 2022
Five Lessons From The Pandemic For Health Care Systems
(This article belongs to the Risk of the Special Issue in Education and Schools Pedagogical, Organizational, Financial and Social Aspects)
The link between climate change and growing poverty levels makes communities more vulnerable to catastrophes, and reduces community resilience to the consequences of disasters. Development practitioners, planners and researchers must find new techniques to build community resilience in the face of ever-growing danger in such a scenario with a spectrum of risk and catastrophe. As a result, the focus of this study was on how school systems, as significant social institutions, can effectively minimize the risk of disasters in communities. People’s standards, beliefs and behavior are strongly influenced by societal institutions. After the family, the school is the second most significant socializing institution, in charge of shaping people’s attitudes, knowledge, behaviour, specialized skills and values in order to ensuring social compliance. The prospect of using school systems to increase disaster risk reduction in poor areas of Greece was specifically addressed in this study. The study confirmed that the school curriculum has a positive and significant relationship with disaster risk management. Many advantages will be realized, according to the research, if disaster risk mitigation becomes a priority in Greece’s education systems. Learning about ideas such as civil protection and incorporating disaster risk management into school curricula are both seen as vital in improving disaster risk management.
In many countries, disaster relief organizations play a critical role in disaster response (Selby and Kagawa 2012). According to Diakakis et al. (2020), well-functioning civil protection services in any nation play a critical role in raising awareness and warning people about major threats to society and how to deal with the repercussions. Civil protection services have evolved over the last century into stronger entities capable of rapid disaster response, resulting in a significant reduction in the number of lives lost as a result of disasters (Diakakis et al 2020). Specifically, safeguarding the people of a state from severe natural catastrophes implies a variety of efforts addressed by national civil protection services (Hermoso and Luca 2006) through a complex of key areas such as crisis management, emergency preparation and management, contingency planning, civil contingency, as well as civil assistance (European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations 2022).
Bernhardsdottir et al. (2016) stated that in recent decades, civil protection has developed into a more proactive and broadly integrated approach, with a focus on better preparedness and actionable early warnings to minimize catastrophe risks and increase efficiency and speed of response. Furthermore, Bernhardsdottir et al. (2016) reported that in some countries, government agencies conduct large-scale earthquake simulation exercises and use educational systems to strengthen disaster preparedness procedures in order to foster a culture of safety and resilience (Diakakis et al. 2020). However, in order to fulfill their prominent role, civil protection agencies face an uphill battle regarding the effective and efficient management of resources (Miléř and Marinič 2017), which demands efficient planning and execution of emergency solutions. limited financial resources from all parties and authorities at the local, regional, and global level (OECD 2012; Gaetani et al. 2009).
Strengthening Disaster Management For A Sustainable Future
Civil protection systems contribute to disaster risk reduction by focusing on disaster preparedness and response in the traditional sense, thereby pushing governments to implement reliable mitigation policies of disaster risk (Diakakis et al. 2020). The traditional emphasis of civil protection systems on preparedness and response, as well as their new involvement in the broader disaster risk reduction agenda, provides an entry point in creating of inclusive recovery plans in general. This is always possible through the improvement of relevant capacities and the sharing of information through an assessment of their strengths, needs and opportunities (Gunawan et al. 2016). Against the background of a traditional approach of preparedness and response, the accumulated knowledge and modern technology can be turned into benefits, contributing efficiently to an improved civil protection strategy (IPCC 2021) towards any type of threat calculation in social, technological and political development. conditions (Cook and Dorussen 2021). Disasters are becoming more frequent and intense, creating major humanitarian concerns. Likewise, there is a manifestation of anxiety about the new dangers that society and individuals are apparently exposed to, such as the coronavirus pandemic, natural hazards, and extreme weather phenomena (United Nations and UNDS 2020 ). However, disasters can be mitigated, and their effects can be reduced if people take precautions. When risk reduction measures are taken before a disaster strikes, the extent of loss and damage is reduced, and education can resume quickly. In an emergency, disaster risk reduction (DRR) is critical to education response (Selby and Kagawa 2012). Major natural disasters, according to Behnam and Shojaei (2018), are extremely destructive and can result in significant human and financial losses. Pre- and post-disaster strategies are often used to reduce the risk of earthquakes.
One of the most important methods to increase awareness of disaster risk management is the integration of DRR initiatives into a country’s emergency preparedness strategy. Cluster coordinators, sector coordination groups, and education or technical staff can improve their involvement in disaster preparedness and response by incorporating risk reduction of disasters in all other cluster activities before, during and after an incident (Gunawan et al. 2016). At the same time, they will be in a strategic position to integrate DRR knowledge into the development agenda, ensuring that the country’s education system continues to grow without interruption. As a result, it is critical that efforts are concentrated on determining the effect of educational systems on hazard and disaster management.
Against the backdrop of the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World during the World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction in 1994, the key areas of knowledge management were highlighted, educational and informational programs, and training in disaster prevention, preparedness, and mitigation. the Strategy for Disaster Reduction for the year 2000 and beyond (IDNDR—International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction 1994). Subsequently, the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters emphasized the importance of knowledge and education in its conception, emphasizing building of a culture of safety and resilience as a strategic priority in order to strengthen disaster risk. reduction (Basabe 2013; UNISDR 2005). Specifically, the promotion of DRR awareness for youth and children is encouraged through its inclusion in school curricula both in schools and in higher education institutions through programs focused on local risk assessment, disaster preparedness programs, and learning activities to minimize the effects of hazards (Basabe 2013; UNISDR 2005).
As a replacement for the Hyogo Framework for Action, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 was approved on 18 March 2015 at the Third UN World Conference in Sendai , Japan. Its aim is to help countries and communities become more resilient to catastrophes. Specifically, the Sendai Framework for Action guarantees that the efforts initiated by the Hyogo Framework for Action are continued by adopting a more people-centred way of prevention (UNISDR 2015). In this research, the Sendai Framework is important as it emphasizes community resilience to disasters. Because one of the focuses of the Sendai Framework is the recognition of stakeholders and their responsibilities, it includes schools, students, parents, and administrators (teachers, principals) as key stakeholders in disaster management (Petal 2009). Therefore, the school education system and its immediate actors are important stakeholders in DRR and community resilience (Twigg 2015). Notably, in each particular community, school children and young people as “agents of change” (UNISDR 2015) are the most significant source of information about the catastrophe capable of leading to the reduction of disaster risk.
A Combined Qualitative–quantitative Fuzzy Method For Urban Flood Resilience Assessment In Karaj City, Iran
However, as Norton, Atun,
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