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Emergency And Trauma Services In European Health Insurance: Rapid Access, Timely Care
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By Ralf Dethlefsen Ralf Dethlefsen Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, †, Luisa Orlik Luisa Orlik Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, †, Martin Müller Martin Müller Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 3, Aristomenis K. Exlitos K. Exadnicist Aristomenis K. .Preprints.org Google Scholar 3, Stefan M. Scholz Stefan M. Scholz Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 4, 5, Jolanta Klukowska-Rötzler Jolanta Klukowska-Rötzler Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 3, ‡ and Mairi Ziakakascilit. org Google Scholar 2 , * , ‡
Received: 2 August 2022 / Revised: 29 August 2022 / Accepted: 3 September 2022 / Published: 8 September 2022
Occupational injuries are one of the leading causes of emergency department visits and a leading cause of disability or even death. However, published studies and reports on construction and occupational accidents in Switzerland are limited. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of fatal and non-fatal injuries among construction workers over 16 years of age over a 5-year period. Data were collected from the emergency department (ED) of Bern University Hospital. A retrospective design was chosen to allow analysis of changes in construction accidents between 2016-2020. A total of 397 patients were enrolled. Compared with studies from other countries, we also showed that the upper extremity and falls from a height are the most common injured body parts and injury mechanisms. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate that the most common age group represented was 26-35 years and the second most common body part injury was the head, which is different from studies in other countries. Lacerations were the most common type of injury, followed by joint deformities. Stratifying by season, occupational injuries among construction workers were found to be significantly higher during summer and fall. As work-related injuries become more common among construction workers, prevention strategies and safety guidelines must be improved.
Accident & Emergency (a&e)
Occupational diseases have been of concern to health professionals since ancient times: Hippocrates recognized lead toxicity in mining workers in the 4th century BC [ 1 ]. Occupational injury is defined as any type of injury occurring during work, which may result from physical, biological, chemical, or psychological hazards . Furthermore, an occupational accident is defined as an unexpected and unplanned event that causes death, personal injury, or illness during or during work [ 3 ].
Occupational injuries are a leading cause of emergency department visits and represent a significant source of disability or even death, particularly among young adults [ 4 , 5 ]. In fact, according to the International Labor Organization, 2.78 million workers suffer fatal work-related injuries and occupational diseases annually. Furthermore, non-fatal accidents are reported in 374 million workers each year . In addition, it has been estimated that work-related injuries cause a global economic loss of 4% [ 6 ], making them the second highest cost of health care in the United States [ 7 ].
In various epidemiological studies, a wide range of contributing factors have been identified and include work-related risk factors such as type of occupation, environmental factors, limited work experience, shift work, overtime, and physiological stress [8, 9, 10]. Additionally, nonwork-related factors, such as sociodemographics (eg, younger age group, male gender), health risk factors (eg, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption), and preexisting medical conditions appear to be important. There are. Additionally associated with work-related injuries .
Regarding the type of occupation, the construction industry has the highest accident rate globally, making it one of the most dangerous sectors . Fabiano and co-workers  investigated trends in occupational injuries among temporary workers in Italian industries and found that the construction sector has one of the highest risks of work-related injuries. Similar findings by Unsar et al. reported, who studied the epidemiology of occupational injuries in Turkey between 2000 and 2005. The study highlighted the construction industry as one of the most common occupations associated with accidents, indeed the most common. Fatal occupational accidents . This is in line with recent research on work-related fatal injuries in Italy, which showed construction as the occupation with the highest number of fatal injuries [ 14 , 15 ]. Indeed, the construction industry is simultaneously dynamic and vulnerable, and highly influenced by environmental and geographic factors [ 16 , 17 ]. Nevertheless, the interaction between professionals from different sectors, companies and countries creates a heterogeneous environment that affects accident rates [18, 19, 20]. Additionally, cues such as working with heavy equipment, working at heights, falling objects, noise, and vibration act collectively to increase the frequency and severity of accidents at construction sites [17, 21]. Additionally, previous research has highlighted that geographical disadvantages such as working in mountainous and riverine areas significantly affect the probability of accidents at construction sites . In addition, climatic factors such as rainfall, wind, light levels, and high ambient temperatures have been strongly associated with an increase in both the frequency and severity of incidents at construction sites . Common causes of accidents among construction workers include contact with objects—especially cutting or piercing objects—falls, overexertion, exposure to hazardous materials, and electrical shock [23, 24, 25, 26]; Often several events are involved . Relative to the type of injury strain and sprain, cuts and sprains, fractures, and sprains represent the most common types of injury. However, construction accidents can cause more severe injuries, including burns, amputations, traumatic brain injury, and internal organ injuries, in addition to fatal outcomes [ 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 ]. Finally, despite significant improvements in safety performance over the past decades, health and safety training among construction workers is generally inadequate due to a lack of appropriate procedures and guidelines [ 27 , 28 ].
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Based on the fact that the construction industry is growing rapidly, the socio-economic impact of work-related accidents is snowing . In fact, the construction sector plays a fundamental role in the global economy, providing millions of jobs globally and representing 6% of the world’s gross domestic product, which is projected to grow significantly in the coming years. .
Considering that the construction sector is 2.5 times more likely to have a serious accident than other industries and 30-40% of these accidents globally are fatal, the social and financial consequences can be devastating. In particular, accidental events at the construction site cause disability and affect the integrity of employees and their families, the performance of other workers, and the productivity of the project . Thus, it is important to reduce the rate of accidents at construction sites by establishing strategies and safety measures.
Despite the accuracy of the data collected by Suva Insurance (Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt—Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund) on construction accidents, there is very limited data on patients presenting to emergency departments with construction accident-related injuries in Switzerland. Is. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the epidemiology of fatal and nonfatal injuries among construction workers over a 5-year period (ie, January 2016 to December 2020) to identify current year-to-year trends. Identify age groups, and seasons, and possible causes, risk factors, underlying mechanisms, and patterns of trauma. Additionally, we focused on the occurrence of injuries as a function of population characteristics, such as age and gender, to suggest further prevention strategies and safety instruction protocols.
This is a retrospective, longitudinal study of all patients admitted to the Department of Emergency Medicine for Adults of Ansel Hospital, Bern University Hospital, Switzerland, one of the level 1 trauma centers (50,000 patients per year, catchment area of 2). was sent Million
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