Health Insurance And Health Literacy: European Efforts To Empower Patients – Safety performance evaluation of construction sites under the influence of psychological factors: An analysis based on an extension cloud model
Determinants of actual COVID-19 vaccine uptake in an essential worker cohort: an area-based longitudinal study in the province of Prato, Italy.
Health Insurance And Health Literacy: European Efforts To Empower Patients
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The Health Literacy Environment
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Pdf) Health Literacy: The Missing Link In Improving The Health Of Somali Immigrant Women In Oslo
Pilar Bas-Sarrmiento Pilar Bas-Sarrmiento Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Maria José Llamas-Toranzo Maria José Lámas-Toranzo Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, Martina Fernández-Gutierrez , * and Miriam Poza-Méndez Miriam Poza-Méndez Scilit Preprints.org Preprints.org Google Scholar 3
Department of Nursing and Physiotherapy, University of Cádiz, University Institute of Research in Social Sustainable Development (INDESS), Research and Innovation Institute in Biomedical Sciences of the Province of Cádiz, INiBICA, 11009 Cádiz, Spain
Department of Nursing and Physiotherapy, University of Cádiz, Institute for Research in Socially Sustainable Development (INDESS), 11009 Cádiz, Spain
Received: 7 October 2022 / Revised: 10 November 2022 / Accepted: 17 November 2022 / Published: 21 November 2022
Health Well Being
The “infodemic” is one of the major obstacles in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. To combat it, health literacy (HL) is essential as it allows promoting knowledge about COVID-19 and practice of preventive measures. This is especially relevant among university students due to their idiosyncrasies. This study aims to evaluate the level of HL related to COVID-19 (HLC), risk perception, misinformation and attitudes and behaviors adopted to prevent the spread of the coronavirus among Spanish university students. An online questionnaire was administered to 499 Spanish university students. The HLC index presented a mean of 33.89 out of 50; A total of 63.8% had inadequate levels of HLC. They practiced a mean of 7.54 out of 9 preventive behaviors and the mean knowledge score was 10.40 out of 13. HLC showed significantly different scores for degree, practice of preventive measures and some sources of information. The level of HL is associated with the adoption of preventive measures. The higher the severity and perceived sensitivity, the more preventive measures students take. Therefore, there is a need to strengthen the HL skills of university students and address the spread of misinformation. Although caution should be taken when generalizing these results due to the limitations inherent in a cross-sectional study and the convenience sample, our results may guide the establishment of health education strategies and policies for infodemic management in epidemic situations. Target population.
The COVID-19 pandemic is a significant global public health challenge. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), SARS-CoV-2, an acute viral pneumonia that presents in most cases is fatal, has caused a total of 605 million cases and 6.4 million deaths by 11 September 2022. .
As already mentioned in previous studies, the COVID-19 pandemic has been accompanied by an explosion of misinformation about the disease, making it difficult for the general public to make informed decisions .
The “infodemic” (information epidemic), i.e. the abundance of information, including false or misleading information in the digital and physical environment during disease outbreaks, is the main obstacle in the fight against this epidemic [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. WHO has called the situation of COVID-19 misinformation an ‘infodemic’ with conspiracy theories, propaganda and unproven scientific claims regarding the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the disease [7, 8], which has made reliable information more difficult. Find and discern, and allowed rumors to spread more rapidly, putting public health at risk by impeding the implementation of effective preventive measures . Health literacy (HL) is necessary to address this [9, 10] because there are studies identifying that people with low HL show less awareness, knowledge and protective behavior, which may lead to a higher risk of COVID-19. 19 infections [11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16]. An adequate level of HL facilitates the recognition of reliable information on COVID-19, improves knowledge and enables the practice of protective health behaviors . Some studies identify HL as a “social vaccine” to combat the COVID-19 infodemic [10, 11, 18].
Using Digital Interactions To Improve Patient Care
The “infodemic” problem is particularly critical due to the frequent use of social networks and the Internet [19, 20, 21], where information spreads rapidly and a large amount of false or misinformation is circulated [22, 23, 24, 25, 26]. They are extremely active online, interacting with an average of 5 digital platforms daily (such as Twitter, TikTok, WeChat, and Instagram). To better understand how they engage with technology during this global communication crisis, an international study was conducted involving nearly 23,500 respondents (Generation Z and Millennials) in 24 countries across five continents . The study concluded that the challenge is to recruit fake news and actively counter it rather than ignore it. Accordingly, university students are a relevant population group with regard to health behaviors and risk perception. As youth, they are more likely to engage in risky behaviors due to their specific characteristics such as their sociability in groups and feelings of vulnerability. Although university students are less likely to get sick, adherence to preventive behaviors is critical in this group because they can spread the disease to the population due to person-to-person transmission . We cannot forget that health behaviors and the population’s perception of risk in the face of the epidemic are essential when the authorities design an action strategy. Indeed, the WHO is acutely aware of how important youth engagement is to the COVID-19 pandemic. They play an important role in helping to reduce proliferation and engaging in the response .
HL plays an important role in epidemic control and the need to take it into consideration in public health messages to reach everyone in the fight against the virus has been emphasized [2, 30, 31, 32]. Indeed, the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted that poor HL is an underestimated public health problem globally . Additionally, studies to date indicate a positive relationship between HL, COVID-19-related knowledge, and preventive behaviors [ 14 , 17 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 ]. People have difficulty evaluating the reliability of information on COVID-19, and populations with limited HL are likely to be confused by the large amount of information available in the media and the Internet . In the European context, HL is defined as “the knowledge, motivation and abilities to access, understand, evaluate and apply information, to make judgments and decisions in terms of health care, disease prevention and healthy behaviours, to maintain and promote quality”. Life for life” . This definition is based on a conceptual model (Figure 1) that refers to four dimensions of health information processing (competencies related to the process of accessing, understanding, evaluating, and applying health-related information) with three domains (health care, disease prevention, and health promotion) that refer to 12 dimensions of health. gives the matrix . There is evidence that HL predicts health-protective behaviors among university students [ 12 , 34 , 40 , 41 , 42 ]. In addition, HL is context-dependent. This means that people with generally acceptable HL skills may still face HL challenges in certain situations, such as an epidemic. Therefore, regarding the infodemic, a comprehensive study should be conducted on the HL levels of the target population to determine the best strategies to improve it .
On the other hand, according to the health belief model  (one of the most used theoretical frameworks in health psychology to explain health and preventive behaviors), behaviors are the result of beliefs and internal evaluations used by an individual. A specific situation. Desire to avoid illness (or, if ill, to stay healthy) and faith
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