Maternal Mental Health Coverage In European Health Insurance Systems – The purpose of this review is to examine factors that may affect maternal mental health and infant development in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this regard, the two aims of this review are as follows: (a) to discuss possible factors that may have negatively affected perinatal mental health through pandemic-related constraints; and (b) provide implications for the adverse impact of maternal emotional well-being on infant development. We conclude that this pandemic may have affected maternal mental health with possible detrimental effects for the infants of the COVID-19 generation. We highlight the need for evidence-based interventions to be integrated into the health system for prenatal and postpartum care in an effort to promote maternal mental health and infant development.
The COVID-19 pandemic is a major threat to global human health and a traumatic experience worldwide (1, 2). During the 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic, millions of babies were born to mothers and families who experienced tremendous stress and changes in their daily lives and environment due to the pandemic (3-5)].
Maternal Mental Health Coverage In European Health Insurance Systems
According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), maternal mental health is defined as: “a state of well-being in which the mother knows her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can have productive and productive work, and is able to help to his community” [as cited in Engle (6)]. Perinatal mental disorders are the most common complications of childbirth and are associated with high levels of maternal and fetal/newborn morbidity and mortality (7). For women in the perinatal period, research has identified two areas of stress related to the pandemic: stress related to feeling unprepared for birth and stress related to fear of perinatal infection (8). Moreover, in the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is evidence from around the world
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Showed that pregnant women suffer from a high prevalence of anxiety (from 21.7 to 78.4%), depression (from 17 to 56.3%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (9-13). During COVID-19, the overall prevalence of anxiety and depression among pregnant women was 40% and 27%, respectively. Although the level of anxiety and depression during pregnancy varies in different countries, it is generally estimated that antenatal depression affects 9-18% of pregnant women at any given time in pregnancy (14, 15) while that 5 to 13% of pregnant women have symptoms of anxiety (10, 11). Therefore, evidence suggests that symptoms of maternal mental disorders have become more common during the pandemic (9-13). Meanwhile, prenatal psychopathology diagnoses have rarely been investigated (13) and only a limited number of studies have analyzed longitudinally the anxiety and depression symptoms of pregnant women during the quarantine period. Despite conflicting results, findings suggest that the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may exacerbate anxiety and depression symptoms in pregnant women (9, 12, 16).
The COVID-19 pandemic coincides with critical time windows of increased resilience, such as pregnancy and infancy (1, 2). The importance of adverse effects on maternal mental health during pregnancy has been emphasized as a potential risk factor for infant development (17). Prenatal stress affects the development of fetal systems (14, 15, 18-21). These embryonic systems are also potentially related factors and causes of neuropsychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, behavioral dysfunction, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder) in children (21). In addition, maternal psychiatric symptoms are associated with delayed and poor infant motor, social, cognitive, and language development and difficulties in emotional self-regulation [for reviews see (22, 23)].
In addition, the wearing of face masks by caregivers in daily interactions with their infants may negatively affect: (a) infants’ abilities related to social and emotional interaction and interpersonal interaction (24, 25) and (b) understanding of infant speech with Intervention on the way. The basic characteristics of infant-directed speech are expressed and transmitted to infants, and by hiding or reducing the infant’s understanding of inter-sensory coherence, the intelligibility of speech and maintaining the infant’s attention [(26), as mentioned in (27, 28) became].
Accordingly, as the pandemic continues, the adverse impact on maternal mental health may have long-term and powerful effects not only on the generation of infants born during the pandemic, but also on future generations (5). We are seriously concerned about this issue because the results of a limited number of the first relevant studies confirm the impact of perinatal stress on the development of the newborn in the pandemic (2, 29-32).
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WHO considers maternal mental health as a global health priority (33). However, at this unprecedented time, mental health issues may have been overshadowed by more pressing health care issues (34). Furthermore, the relevant literature has mainly focused on the impact as a consequence of the epidemic on the emotional health of the mother after childbirth. A growing body of research examines women’s mental health during pregnancy as well (35). In the meantime, the factors that may affect the mental health of the perinatal mother and its relationship with the growth of the baby have been discussed only in an excerpt. From a holistic perspective, by discussing possible factors that may influence maternal mental health during pregnancy through pandemic-related constraints, and by highlighting the adverse consequences of a negative impact on maternal emotional health on infant development, this review It fills a gap in the literature. Generation of COVID-19 (see Figure 1).
Figure 1. Factors that may influence perinatal maternal mental health through epidemiology-related constraints and consequences for infant and child development.
A strategy was developed and literature searches were conducted from March 2020 to March 2022. The following electronic databases were searched: Web of Science, APA PsycINFO, Academic Search Ultimate, and JSTOR. The search was limited to articles published in English, with no restrictions on the year of publication. Editorials, opinion articles, empirical studies, reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were eligible. In this review, we identified publications that examined: (a) the ways in which the pandemic may affect the mental health of mothers of preschool, school-aged children, and adolescents and (b) research focusing on the mental health of mothers of developmental children or adolescents. Therefore, we only included articles focusing on the way the pandemic has affected maternal perinatal mental health in infants and typically developing infants. For the first five subsections of the first objective of this review, the literature search consisted of using a combination of the keywords: “COVID-19 or coronavirus or 2019-ncov or sars-cov-2 or cov-19” with any of the following terms. : “Maternal mental health or postpartum mental health or perinatal mental health”, “Family relationships, family environment or family dynamics or family functioning”/ “Family cohesion”, “Maternal care or maternal health or reproductive health”, “Health Maternal or pregnancy or perinatal, “breastfeeding or breastfeeding or infant feeding or breastfeeding or breastfeeding”, “birth experience or women’s feelings about birth or satisfaction with birth” and “neonatal intensive care unit or neonatal intensive care unit”. For the sixth part of the first objective of this review, the literature search included the combined use of “COVID-19 or coronavirus or 2019-ncov or sars-cov-2 or cov-19” with “maternal mental health or postpartum mental health or mental health Perinatal” and “baby growth”. Therefore, for the coherence of this review, we limited the presentation of these studies to only those that provided evidence on infant developmental outcomes in relation to maternal mental health during pregnancy in the first months of life. For the second aim of this review, search terms included the combined use of “maternal depression or postpartum depression or perinatal depression” or “maternal anxiety or postpartum anxiety or anxiety during pregnancy” or “maternal stress during pregnancy” with each It was from the following terms: “infant growth”, “fetal systems”, “fetal physiology”, “mother-infant interaction or primary interaction”, “mother-infant dependence”, “mother’s sensitivity or parents’ sensitivity or caregivers’ sensitivity”.
Possible factors that may negatively affect perinatal mental health through pandemic-related limitations, family environment and parental mental health
Health At A Glance 2021
Quarantine and shutdown policies related to COVID-19 have led to economic hardship, instability or job loss, and uncertainty about the future economic situation. The imposition of strict measures significantly changed the daily routine of citizens. In addition, Covid-19 has been a threat to interpersonal interactions and relationships due to limited physical proximity with non-family members/friends and at the same time forced and long-term cohabitation with family members (1, 36). The environment/function of the family has a significant impact on the mental health of its members. In critical situations, the family environment may affect the interaction of negative emotions among its members (37). Unusual family environment has been associated with mental disorders among pregnant women. A mother’s perinatal mental health is influenced by her family environment and compatibility between them is very important (38). Parental depression can be transmitted to children through poor family functioning (39).
Related to these, findings from limited studies in different regions provide evidence of the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the family environment and mental health of parents (mother and father) (1, 38, 40-46).
In particular, in China, Xie et al. (38) showed that compared to the pre-pandemic period, coherence scores
And independence in families was much less during the pandemic. Family cohesion scores had a negative relationship with symptoms of depression, anxiety and hostility. Similarly, Lee et al. (45) The negative was confirmed
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