Pediatric Vaccination Coverage And Health Insurance Policies In Europe – Following recent approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and recommendation by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), children ages 5-11 are now eligible to receive Pfizer-BioNTech’s COVID-19 vaccine. . Immunizing young children may present unique challenges, particularly from low-income families who may face additional barriers to access. Of all children ages 5-11, more than one-third (36%) are covered by Medicaid, and 70% of children ages 5-11 with incomes greater than 200% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) Fewer are covered by Medicaid (Figure 1). ). State Medicaid programs and Medicaid managed care plans are considering a number of policy options to facilitate access to vaccines for young, low-income children.
Low-income children may face barriers to accessing vaccines. Polling recently found that parents of children ages 5-11 with a household income of less than $50,000 are more likely than children with higher incomes to say they are worried about problems related to the coronavirus vaccine. are very or somewhat concerned about In particular, low-income parents reported more concerns about vaccine access, such as taking time off work or traveling to a location to receive the vaccine. Pre-pandemic research similarly shows lower immunization rates for low-income children, possibly stemming from a lack of information and access difficulties such as access or transportation.
Pediatric Vaccination Coverage And Health Insurance Policies In Europe
Low vaccination rates among low-income children may have implications for ongoing disparities in the spread of COVID-19 in communities of color. An analysis of the 2021 Current Population Survey Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS ASEC) shows that more than two-thirds of children ages 5-11 on Medicaid are of color, including about 37% who are Hispanic and 21% who are black. are Blacks and Hispanics have been less likely than their white counterparts to receive the vaccine during the vaccine rollout. Although disparities have been decreasing over time, disparities in children’s vaccine uptake may reverse this trend.
The State Of The World’s Children 2023: For Every Child, Vaccination
States have reported adopting a range of Medicaid strategies aimed at increasing vaccine use, many of which may extend coverage to low-income children under the program. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has highlighted several Medicaid flexibilities and funding opportunities that states can use to promote vaccine access. For example, states may request Medicaid administrative federal matching funds for state-funded financial incentives for enrollees to encourage vaccine use. In the 2016 annual budget survey, several states reported Medicaid managed care organization (MCO) activities and incentives to promote vaccination among Medicaid enrollees, including financial incentives for MCOs that meet vaccination goals. do States also report the use of member incentives, such as gift cards, and provider incentives. Given that MCOs serve the vast majority of children’s Medicaid enrollees, these activities may reach many children and families covered by the program. Other state activities focus on using providers to address vaccine reluctance, which may be especially needed for parents with young children. Medicaid options in this area include administrative payment rates for vaccines and financial incentives to achieve or increase vaccine coverage.
Strategies targeting access can help improve vaccine uptake among low-income children. CMS notes that Medicaid administrative federal matching funds may be used to provide beneficiary and provider community outreach such as disseminating information or materials and providing training. In the US’s annual budget survey, several states reported using data collection and tracking to better target access and reduce disparities in COVID-19 vaccination rates. Strategies to employ reliable and diverse messengers of vaccine information can aid in education and outreach to parents/caregivers (which is important because consent is required for vaccines in all states, although D.C. and Philadelphia allow self-consent to children as young as 11. COVID-19 vaccine). For example, MCOs in Michigan report using community health workers to provide education and outreach to address vaccine reluctance. Further, a June 2021 analysis found that community health centers are vaccinating a greater number of people of color than overall vaccination efforts, reflecting the trusting relationships they have established with communities of color.
Although the cost of the COVID-19 vaccine is inclusive for all individuals, other policies can help address additional barriers to vaccine access for low-income children. While the federal government recently implemented a paid leave policy for federal workers who drive their children to vaccination appointments, other employers have not, and low-income workers are required to vaccinate their children. Finding the time to get it done can be more difficult. Additionally, arranging transportation to and from vaccine appointments can be difficult for some people, especially if a vaccine provider is not nearby. In the annual budget survey of the United States, states reported that transportation coordination to increase access and assistance with vaccination scheduling, as well as partnerships with community-based organizations to provide vaccines where people can easily access them. . Strategies that help parents more easily make and travel to vaccine appointments may help increase vaccine uptake among low-income children and reduce disparities in COVID-19 vaccination rates. 22 academic years
During the 2020-21 school year, national coverage with state-required vaccines among kindergarten students dropped from 95% to about 94%.
Reports From The Working Groups
During the 2021-22 school year, coverage for all state-required vaccines dropped again to about 93%. The exemption rate remained low (2.6%). An additional start highlight 4.4end highlight % was not up-to-date with measles, mumps and rubella vaccines with no exemptions. Despite the widespread return to in-person learning, COVID-19-related disruptions continued to affect vaccination coverage and assessments for the 2021-22 school year, preventing a return to pandemic coverage.
Increasing follow-up with undervaccinated students to reduce the impact of barriers to vaccination coverage may help protect students from vaccine-preventable diseases.
State and local school vaccination requirements protect students and communities from vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report summarizes data collected by state and local immunization programs*
For the 2021-22 academic year. Nationwide vaccination coverage started with 2 doses of Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccine Highlight 93.0end Highlight %
Impact Of Covid‐19 Pandemic On Routine Vaccination Coverage Of Children And Adolescents: A Systematic Review
; Diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) doses with state-required 92.7%** were started with poliovirus vaccine (polio) highlighted 93.1 and highlighted %
Compared to the 2020–21 school year, vaccination coverage decreased by a significant percentage point at the end of the initial highlight for all vaccines, 0.8–0.9. Although 2.6% of kindergartners had an exemption for at least one vaccine,
An additional start highlight 4.4end highlight % who did not have exemptions were not up to date with MMR. Although there has been an almost complete return to in-person learning following the disruptions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, immunization programs continue to report COVID-19-related impacts on vaccination evaluations and coverage. Follow-up and catch-up campaigns with undervaccinated students are critical to increasing vaccination coverage to pre-pandemic levels to protect children and communities from vaccine-preventable diseases.
As per state and local school enrollment requirements, parents provide children’s vaccination or exemption documentation to schools, or schools obtain records from state immunization information systems. Federally funded immunization programs work with the Department of Education, school nurses, and other school personnel to evaluate the vaccination and exemption status of children enrolled in public and private kindergartens and To report unweighted counts collected by school type, via a web-based questionnaire. Secure Access Management System, a federal, web-based system that provides secure access to public health applications to authorized personnel. uses these counts to develop state- and national-level estimates of vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten. During the 2021-22 school year, 49 states and the District of Columbia reported coverage for all state-required vaccines and exemption data for public school kindergartners. 48 states and the District of Columbia reported coverage with data on all state-required vaccines and exemptions for private school kindergartners.*** Data from cities were included with their state data. State-level coverage and national and intermediate coverage are reported along with state-required number of doses of DTaP, MMR, polio, and varicella vaccines. Coverage of hepatitis B vaccination is not included in this report but is available on the School Week View (2). Twenty-seven states reported the number of kindergartners who were attending school under grace period (full vaccination or attendance without proof of immunity during a specified period) or provisional enrollment (attending school while completing the catch-up vaccination schedule). ). All counts were current at the time of assessment.
National Immunisation Programme
National estimates measure coverage and exemptions among all kindergartners, while medians indicate state-level coverage averages, regardless of population size. During the 2021-22 school year, immunization programs reported 3,835,130 children enrolled in kindergarten in 49 states and the District of Columbia who started highlight at the end.
Reported estimates are based on Start Highlight 3, 536, 546 and Highlight (92.2%) children surveyed for vaccination coverage, Start Highlight 3, 686, 775 (96.1%) surveyed for exemption. Went, and highlight 2, 527, 578 start (65.9%) final survey highlights for grace period and interim enrollment status. Potentially achievable coverage with MMR (the sum of the percentage of children who were up to date with 2 doses of MMR and those who were not up to date but had no documented vaccination exemption) was calculated for each state. . Non-exempt students include those who entered kindergarten temporarily, in a grace period, or otherwise.
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